The three big tape manufacturers in Europe have been found guilty of price-fixing on professional tape media.

The 3-way Japanese cartel controlling 85% of the professional videotape market was found guilty of artificially controlling prices on Betacam SP and Digital Betacam — the two most popular professional videotape formats in use between 1999 and 2002. According to the EU commission, they “organized three successful rounds of price increases and endeavored to stabilize prices whenever an increase was not possible.”